比约克Guðmundsdóttir OTF（/ b Ĵ ɜːr ķ / BYURK，冰岛： [pjœr̥kkvʏðmʏntsˌtouʰtɪr̥] （听）关于这个声音 ; 1965年出生11月21日）是一个冰岛歌手，作曲家，唱片制作人，女演员，和DJ。在她40年的职业生涯中，她已研制出一种折衷的音乐风格，在一系列的影响和流派跨越绘制电子，流行，实验，行程跳，古典和前卫音乐。
比约克的几张专辑已跻身美国Billboard 200排行榜前20名，据报道，截至2015年，她已在全球售出20到4000万张唱片。她有31位单打跻身全球流行音乐排行榜的前40名，在英国有22首前40位热门歌曲，其中包括前10首单曲“ It’s Oh So Quiet ”，“ Army of Me ”和“ Hyperballad ”和前20首单曲“ Play Dead ”，“ Big Time Sensality ”和“ Violently Happy ”。，五个BRIT奖和15个格莱美奖提名。在2015年，她被《时代》杂志列入世界100位最具影响力人物名单。比约克在《滚石》的100位最伟大的歌手和歌曲作者名单中分别排名60和81 。
在过去三年的独奏生涯中，比约克发展了一种折衷和前卫的音乐风格，融合了电子，舞蹈，备选舞，跳闸跳，实验，毛刺，爵士乐，另类摇滚，仪器，和当代古典音乐。自从她一贯反对音乐流派的分类以来，她的音乐就受到了严格的分析和审查。尽管她经常称自己为流行歌手，但她仍被认为是“不懈的实验性创造力”。据《纽约客》的泰勒·霍·拜纳姆（Taylor Ho Bynum）说，“没有一个当代艺术家能像比约克那样优雅地弥合[音乐实验家和流行名人之间的鸿沟]。她的专辑Debut，其中包含电子，房屋，爵士乐和trip hop，被认为是最早将电子音乐引入主流流行音乐的专辑之一。她的作品被描述为“经常探索自然与技术之间的关系”。约书亚·奥斯特罗夫（Joshua Ostroff ）大致概括了她在艺术和流行音乐方面的广泛融合，并建议：“比约克（Björk）所做的任何描述都比artpop更好。的NME还称她为输出“始终坚持渐进式的流行议程。”
比约克的影响力被描述为“和她所激发的一样多样化”。大问题写道：“从极简主义技术到免费爵士乐，她的热情得到了充分的证明。”比约克在写给她的传记中告诉马克·皮特里克：“如果我说对我影响最大的人，我会说斯托克豪森，卡夫特韦克，布莱恩·伊诺和马克·贝尔等人。” 比约克（Björk）赞扬了一些“自白歌手”，其中包括阿比达·帕尔文（Abida Parveen），查卡·汗（Chaka Khan），乔尼·米切尔（Joni Mitchell）和凯特·布什（Kate Bush），后者对她的职业生涯具有决定性的影响。根据《大问题》，“启发[比约克]开始创作自己的歌曲的艺术家是乔尼·米切尔。” 她说米切尔“创造了自己的[女性音乐世界]”，并发现它“非常解放”。
在音乐学校成长的初期，比约克开始对前卫，古典和简约音乐感兴趣；也成为“爵士怪胎”。尽管她的音乐音调更加一致，并且具有更广泛的跨界吸引力，但她被认为欠负前卫作曲家卡尔海因茨·斯托克豪森，梅勒迪斯·蒙克，孙拉和菲利普·格拉斯。在2008年《卫报》的一篇文章中，比约克将斯托克豪森视为电子音乐的根基，他写道：“他点燃了仍在燃烧并会发光很长时间的太阳”。比约克职业生涯初期，戴维·阿滕伯勒爵士（David Attenborough）爵士是她最大的音乐影响力，她说：“她渴望探索新的和狂野的领土。” 她还说她“喜欢发现我以前从未听过的声音”。
Björk Guðmundsdóttir OTF (/bjɜːrk/ BYURK, Icelandic: [pjœr̥k ˈkvʏðmʏntsˌtouʰtɪr̥] (About this soundlisten); born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, record producer, actress, and DJ. Over her four-decade career, she has developed an eclectic musical style that draws on a range of influences and genres spanning electronic, pop, experimental, trip hop, classical, and avant-garde music.
Born and raised in Reykjavík, Björk began her music career at the age of 11 and first gained international recognition as the lead singer of the alternative rock band the Sugarcubes, whose 1987 single “Birthday” was a hit on UK and US indie stations and a favourite among music critics. After the band’s 1992 breakup, Björk embarked on a solo career, coming to prominence with albums such as Debut (1993), Post (1995), and Homogenic (1997), while collaborating with a range of artists and exploring a variety of multimedia projects. Her other albums include Vespertine (2001), Medúlla (2004), Volta (2007), Biophilia (2011), Vulnicura (2015), and Utopia (2017).
Several of Björk’s albums have reached the top 20 on the US Billboard 200 chart and she is reported to have sold between 20 and 40 million records worldwide as of 2015. She has had 31 singles reach the top 40 on pop charts around the world, with 22 top 40 hits in the UK, including the top 10 singles “It’s Oh So Quiet”, “Army of Me”, and “Hyperballad”, and the top 20 singles “Play Dead”, “Big Time Sensuality”, and “Violently Happy”. Her accolades and awards include the Order of the Falcon, five BRIT Awards, and 15 Grammy nominations. In 2015, she was included in Time’s list of the 100 most influential people in the world. Björk was ranked number 60 and number 81 in Rolling Stone’s 100 greatest singers and songwriters lists, respectively.
In addition to her music career, Björk starred in the 2000 Lars von Trier film Dancer in the Dark, for which she won the Best Actress Award at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival, and was nominated for Academy Award for Best Original Song for “I’ve Seen It All”. Biophilia was marketed as an interactive app album with its own education program. Björk has also been an advocate for environmental causes in her home country Iceland. A full-scale retrospective exhibition dedicated to Björk was held at the New York Museum of Modern Art in 2015.
Over her three-decade solo career, Björk has developed an eclectic and avant-garde musical style that incorporates aspects of electronic, dance, alternative dance, trip hop, experimental, glitch, jazz, alternative rock, instrumental, and contemporary classical music. Her music has since been subject to critical analysis and scrutiny, as she consistently defies categorization in a musical genre. Although she often calls herself a pop artist, she is considered a “restlessly experimental creative force.” According to The New Yorker’s Taylor Ho Bynum, “no contemporary artist so gracefully bridges the divide [between music experimentalist and pop celebrity] as Björk.” Her album Debut, which incorporated electronic, house, jazz, and trip hop, has been credited as one of the first albums to introduce electronic music into mainstream pop. Her work has been described as “frequently explor[ing] the relationship between nature and technology.” Broadly summarizing her wide-ranging integration of art and popular music, Joshua Ostroff suggested that “there is no better descriptor for what Björk does than artpop.” The NME also called her output a “consistently progressive pop agenda.”
Björk’s work is idiosyncratically collaborative, having worked with various producers, photographers, fashion designers and music video directors. This, however, has sometimes led to what Björk believed was the lack of acknowledgment of auteurship in her music, something she attributes to being a woman. In a 2016 inverview with the London Evening Standard, she said that “If a guy had done all the [arrangements and production] on his album, he would have credit for his work. It’s always like […] I just turn up and sing and go home.”
Björk’s influences have been described “as diverse as those she inspires”. The Big Issue wrote that: “her passion from everything from minimalist techno to free jazz has been well documented.” For his biography of her, Björk told Mark Pytlik: “If I were to say who influenced me most, I would say people like Stockhausen, Kraftwerk, Brian Eno and Mark Bell.” Some “confessional singer-songwriters” Björk commends include Abida Parveen, Chaka Khan, Joni Mitchell and Kate Bush, the latter being a definitive influence in her career. According to The Big Issue, “the artist that inspired [Björk] to start writing her own songs was Joni Mitchell.” She said that Mitchell “created her own [female musical universe]”, and found it “very liberating.”
During her formative years at music school, Björk became interested in avant-garde, classical, and minimalistic music; also becoming a “jazz freak”. Although her music is more consistently tonal and has more crossover appeal, she is considered indebted to avant-garde composers Karlheinz Stockhausen, Meredith Monk, Sun Ra and Philip Glass. In a 2008 article for The Guardian, Björk considered Stockhausen as the root of electronic music, writing “he sparked off a sun that is still burning and will glow for a long time.” Early in her career, Björk cited Sir David Attenborough as her biggest musical influence, saying “she identified with his thirst for exploring new and wild territories.” She also stated that she “[likes] to discover sounds I had never heard before.”
1993 – Debut (Japan)
1995 – Post
1997 – Homogenic
2001 – Vespertine
2004 – Medulla
2007 – Volta
2011 – Biophilia (Manual Edition 2CD)
2015 – Vulnicura Live (2CD)
2015 – Vulnicura Strings
2017 – Utopia